Diabetic foot (diabetic foot syndrome) – a complication of diabetes, which forms trophic ulcers on the foot. The problem is very urgent: more than one hundred thousand residents of our city suffer from diabetes. Almost in a quarter of cases, this syndrome ends with amputation of the limb due to gangrene. But if before medicine was unable to cope with this severe complication and the patient had to wait obediently for his fate, now the situation has changed. The diagnosis “Diabetic Foot” today is no longer a verdict.
How does a diabetic foot appear?
Diabetes disrupts the absorption of sugar by all organs and tissues except the brain. Ketone bodies and other poisonous compounds are formed, many types of metabolism suffer. As a result, a number of pathological changes occur in the body. The nervous system is affected – nerve cells, fibers and ends. Vessels are affected – arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Unfavorable processes take place in the bone tissue, in the skin. In the depth of weakened tissues, infection easily penetrates. All this leads to the formation of diabetic foot. There are three main forms – “neuropathic infected”, “ischemic gangreneous” and mixed. The first one is more related to the pathology of the nervous system arising from diabetes, the second – to the lesion of blood vessels. In a mixed form, both these processes play approximately the same role.
The main manifestations of diabetic foot
At the beginning of its development, diabetic foot usually does not bring much suffering to the patient, because by that time a significant part of the nerve endings of the foot has already died and is unable to produce pain impulses. This is the insidiousness: the disease develops spontaneously and does not prompt you to see a doctor immediately. The early signs of this syndrome are swelling and redness of the feet, chilly feet, tingling sensation, creeps, rapid fatigue of legs while walking, calf muscle cramps. The main changes can also occur in the type of bone deformities – it is becoming increasingly difficult to choose shoes. If at this stage is not treated, the pathological process continues to develop. First, surface ulcers appear, then – deep sores penetrating into subcutaneous fat, tendons, joints, bone structures. Accession of the infection leads to serious complications – gangrene and osteomyelitis. Gangrene is often the cause of foot amputation, disability and death of patients.
Diabetic foot diagnosis
Even if the diagnosis of “diabetic foot” is not in doubt, an in-depth examination of the patient is required. It is necessary to get answers to a number of questions – what diabetic changes have occurred in the body, how deeply affected are the nerves, blood vessels and bone structures of the foot, the nature of the joined infection and many others. The department carries out duplex scanning of arteries and veins of the legs, take blood for glucose, lipids and cholesterol. Specialist examination and comprehensive diagnosis allow you to quickly make the right diagnosis and assess the depth of tissue damage. Immediately on the day of the visit, a patient treatment program is developed and can be immediately implemented. It is very important to start treatment early, because in neglected cases, sometimes it is not possible to save the limb, and amputation is required to save the life of the patient (for life indications).
Treatment and prevention of diabetic foot
When an early visit to the doctor, when ulcers have not yet formed or they are shallow, the patient has a much better chance of recovery. Nevertheless, even at the initial stage of the disease it is necessary to apply a whole range of therapeutic measures aimed at normalizing metabolism, treatment of neuropathy, restoration of foot blood supply, combating swelling, infection. In neglected cases, the patient is placed in a hospital – this allows for intensive treatment, to control the dynamics of the patient’s body and ensure peace of the affected limb. Treatment of diabetic foot is one of the most important activities of the Dr. Gruzdev Clinic. The Clinic uses drip injection of modern vascular drugs and drugs for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physiotherapeutic methods aimed at both activation of the main blood flow in the limb, and the development of collaterals around the narrowed arteries (magnetotherapy, intravenous laser irradiation of the blood (FOCA), magnetic and sound therapy, electromyostimulation, etc.). In the development of trophic disorders with surface tissue affection, external ozone therapy is successfully used to cleanse the ulcer defect and accelerate epithelization processes.