Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Epitomax, an antiepileptic drug of unusual structure, is a fructose derivative. Topiramate, sold under the brand name Epitomax among others, is a drug used to treat epilepsy and prevent migraines. It is not effective as an antimanic or antidepressant for bipolar disorder. It has also been used for alcohol addiction. For the treatment of epilepsy it includes generalized or focal seizures. It is used orally.

Common side effects include tingling, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain, hair loss, and concentration problems. Serious side effects can include suicide, elevated ammonia levels leading to encephalopathy, and kidney stones. Use during pregnancy can lead to harm to the baby, and use during breastfeeding is not recommended.

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Epitomax was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996. Epitomax is used to treat epilepsy in children and adults, and it was originally used as an anticonvulsant. In children, it is indicated for the treatment of Lennox-Gasto syndrome, a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays. It is most often prescribed for the prevention of migraine; it reduces the frequency of attacks.

In a 2019 Cochrane review comparing the effectiveness of epilepsy treatment between carbamazepine and topiramate (Epitomax), results showed that those who took carbamazepine were more likely to take the treatment longer and achieve remission 12 months earlier than those who took topiramate. No differences were found between the drugs in those with generalized or unclassified epilepsy. The most common side effects reported by participants during the trials were fatigue, “needles and needles” (a tingling sensation), headache, gastrointestinal problems, and anxiety or depression. These side effects were reported about the same number of times by people taking Epitomax or carbamazepine. For people with focal seizures, the reliability of the evidence was rated as moderate to high. For a small number of people with generalized or unclassified seizures, the reliability of the evidence was rated as low to moderate. The evidence was valid through May 2018.

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

In a 2019 Cochrane review of Epitomax for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, results showed that Epitomax was better tolerated than valproate but was not more effective than valproate. Also, Epitomax appeared to work better than placebo, but this result was based on the small number of participants included. The quality of evidence from the included studies was very low, and the results should be interpreted with caution.

In a 2014 Cochrane review of the potential use of Epitomax as an adjunctive agent in pharmacoresistant epilepsy, results showed that for seizure reduction in drug-resistant focal epilepsy, Epitomax was three times more effective than placebo when used with other medications. However, the addition of Epitomax to the main treatment causes an increase in side effects such as problems with coordination (ataxia) and concentration, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, nausea, “wrong thinking”, skin irritation or numbness (paresthesia) and weight loss.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine progressive disease characterized by a relative or complete deficiency of insulin, a pancreatic hormone.

How can I regain a full life with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is not a sentence. It can be reversed even in its initial stages of development. How to recognize the disease, stop its course or continue to fight the “sweet enemy” as equals? What is insulin responsible for? It directs the processes of energy metabolism in the body. This hormone helps glucose get into the cell. If insulin is lacking, blood sugar rises significantly.

Diabetes mellitus

Symptoms: unremitting feeling of thirst; increased frequency of urination; weight changes regardless of lifestyle (both upward and downward); poor wound healing; skin infections, itching; tendency to overwork; increased hunger, no complete saturation after meals; tingling in the extremities, you often “chills” on the body; problems with sexual activity; dry mouth; visual impairment.
Risk Factors. If parents are susceptible to the disease, in 50% of cases the child is also affected. A sedentary lifestyle puts you in a risk group. Abuse of an unbalanced diet (fatty or high-carbohydrate foods) also poses a threat to your health. It takes an average of 5-7 years from the onset of the disease to diagnosis. There are about 3-4 people per newly diagnosed patient, who do not even suspect the presence of their insidious disease. At the same time, taking certain medications or endocrine disorders can relapse diabetes. The occurrence of secondary diabetes occurs with improper function of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, during the use of glucocorticosteroid drugs (these are analogs of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; have an anti-inflammatory effect, artificially suppress immunity in autoimmune diseases; have an antishock effect, prevent the appearance of allergies) diuretics (increase urine flow), salicylates (substances that have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects).

There are certain types of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs more often in adolescents and young adults. This category of disease is associated with the death of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This means that insulin completely disappears from the internal environment. As a result, cells are unable to assimilate sugar and remain without an energy boost. Type 1 manifests itself after viral infections, malfunctions of the immune system and less frequently – due to hereditary predisposition. In this case, the body weight may remain normal, even decreasing.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for an average of 80% of all cases. It occurs mainly in people after the age of 40 who are overweight, lead a sedentary lifestyle and abuse an improper diet. In the presence of this type of diabetes, there is a delivery of insulin to the body from the beta cells, but the cells lose the ability to recognize it.
  • There is also pregnancy diabetes or gestational diabetes (during pregnancy there is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism), and diabetes resulting from insufficient nutrition.
What is Type 2 diabetes

What is Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is becoming more and more common around the world. According to recent data, only in the last 10 years the number of patients has increased by 60%. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetics. Whether you are looking for information for yourself, your spouse or a loved one, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and available treatments for diabetes anyway.

What is Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cells that produce insulin become unable to produce enough or when the insulin produced is not perceived by the body – this condition is also known as insulin resistance. Unfortunately, this disease is a lifelong one. In the UK alone, it affects about 2.88 million people. But even if these figures do not frighten you, you can live a full and healthy life with the right information, the right attitude and the right lifestyle. Diabetes 1 and 2 types differ from each other in several ways. Thus, in contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is usually found in people over the age of 40 years. However, unhealthy diet and lifestyle may determine the development of diabetes at any age. Previously, it was called adulthood diabetes because it was more common among older people, but with increasing obesity and the number of young people leading sedentary lifestyles, the risk for young adults, adolescents and children increased.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

It was found that lifestyle, nutrition and national identity may have a direct impact on the likelihood of a person having Type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that people of African and Creole origin are 3 times more likely to develop the disease, while people from southern Asia are almost 6 times more likely to have it.

PREVENTING TYPE 2 DIABETES

The most important thing is to keep a positive mood and be ready for changes. Try to wean yourself from possible bad habits and think about what pleases you – it will help to move to a healthier lifestyle. You can start walking more or try new, healthier recipes – anything you want to do, the main thing is to do with enthusiasm. If you are in an age group with a higher risk of diabetes, or if you have an unfavorable family history, it is not a reason to worry too much. Just read this article and try to enjoy a healthy lifestyle.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES?

What is Type 2 diabetes

Another important factor that differentiates type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes occurs within a few weeks and type 2 diabetes develops slowly over a longer period of time. Because of this, gradually manifesting symptoms are often overlooked.
Briefly looking at the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, we can identify 3 main symptoms:

  • Excessive thirst. This condition is also known as polydipsia; in fact, it is a persistent desire to drink water despite the use of an adequate amount during the day.
  • Excessive hunger. By analogy with polydipsia, this symptom is called polyphagia. Persisting intense hunger for lack of physical activity may be an indicator of the presence of problems in the body.
  • Increased urination. The last of the three main symptoms and the last “P” is polyuria. It can be described as unusual or irregular urination, maintaining this character day after day.

SIDE EFFECTS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

Here are some of the most common complications of type 2 diabetes:

  • Damage to the heart and blood vessels. Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including coronary heart disease and hypertension, which may eventually lead to heart attack.
  • Damage to the eyes and feet. Diabetes can have a significant effect on the blood vessels of the eyes, which can lead to cataract and glaucoma, and in severe cases – even blindness. Stops also often suffer from nerve damage and poor blood flow. Because diabetics have slower wound healing processes, any small damage to the foot can quickly turn into a severe lesion.
  • Affection to the nerves. High blood sugar (glucose) levels for a long time can damage the capillaries responsible for the nerve endings in the extremities, such as the legs. As a result, a tingling sensation or numbness may occur, which eventually leads to a loss of sensitivity in the affected areas.
DIABETIC FOOT: THE SITUATION IS NOT HOPELESS!

DIABETIC FOOT: THE SITUATION IS NOT HOPELESS!

Diabetic foot (diabetic foot syndrome) – a complication of diabetes, which forms trophic ulcers on the foot. The problem is very urgent: more than one hundred thousand residents of our city suffer from diabetes. Almost in a quarter of cases, this syndrome ends with amputation of the limb due to gangrene. But if before medicine was unable to cope with this severe complication and the patient had to wait obediently for his fate, now the situation has changed. The diagnosis “Diabetic Foot” today is no longer a verdict.

How does a diabetic foot appear?

DIABETIC FOOT: THE SITUATION IS NOT HOPELESS!

Diabetes disrupts the absorption of sugar by all organs and tissues except the brain. Ketone bodies and other poisonous compounds are formed, many types of metabolism suffer. As a result, a number of pathological changes occur in the body. The nervous system is affected – nerve cells, fibers and ends. Vessels are affected – arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Unfavorable processes take place in the bone tissue, in the skin. In the depth of weakened tissues, infection easily penetrates. All this leads to the formation of diabetic foot. There are three main forms – “neuropathic infected”, “ischemic gangreneous” and mixed. The first one is more related to the pathology of the nervous system arising from diabetes, the second – to the lesion of blood vessels. In a mixed form, both these processes play approximately the same role.

The main manifestations of diabetic foot

At the beginning of its development, diabetic foot usually does not bring much suffering to the patient, because by that time a significant part of the nerve endings of the foot has already died and is unable to produce pain impulses. This is the insidiousness: the disease develops spontaneously and does not prompt you to see a doctor immediately. The early signs of this syndrome are swelling and redness of the feet, chilly feet, tingling sensation, creeps, rapid fatigue of legs while walking, calf muscle cramps. The main changes can also occur in the type of bone deformities – it is becoming increasingly difficult to choose shoes. If at this stage is not treated, the pathological process continues to develop. First, surface ulcers appear, then – deep sores penetrating into subcutaneous fat, tendons, joints, bone structures. Accession of the infection leads to serious complications – gangrene and osteomyelitis. Gangrene is often the cause of foot amputation, disability and death of patients.

Diabetic foot diagnosis

DIABETIC FOOT: THE SITUATION IS NOT HOPELESS!

Even if the diagnosis of “diabetic foot” is not in doubt, an in-depth examination of the patient is required. It is necessary to get answers to a number of questions – what diabetic changes have occurred in the body, how deeply affected are the nerves, blood vessels and bone structures of the foot, the nature of the joined infection and many others. The department carries out duplex scanning of arteries and veins of the legs, take blood for glucose, lipids and cholesterol. Specialist examination and comprehensive diagnosis allow you to quickly make the right diagnosis and assess the depth of tissue damage. Immediately on the day of the visit, a patient treatment program is developed and can be immediately implemented. It is very important to start treatment early, because in neglected cases, sometimes it is not possible to save the limb, and amputation is required to save the life of the patient (for life indications).

Treatment and prevention of diabetic foot

When an early visit to the doctor, when ulcers have not yet formed or they are shallow, the patient has a much better chance of recovery. Nevertheless, even at the initial stage of the disease it is necessary to apply a whole range of therapeutic measures aimed at normalizing metabolism, treatment of neuropathy, restoration of foot blood supply, combating swelling, infection. In neglected cases, the patient is placed in a hospital – this allows for intensive treatment, to control the dynamics of the patient’s body and ensure peace of the affected limb. Treatment of diabetic foot is one of the most important activities of the Dr. Gruzdev Clinic. The Clinic uses drip injection of modern vascular drugs and drugs for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physiotherapeutic methods aimed at both activation of the main blood flow in the limb, and the development of collaterals around the narrowed arteries (magnetotherapy, intravenous laser irradiation of the blood (FOCA), magnetic and sound therapy, electromyostimulation, etc.). In the development of trophic disorders with surface tissue affection, external ozone therapy is successfully used to cleanse the ulcer defect and accelerate epithelization processes.

How does a migraine manifest itself

How does a migraine manifest itself

Pain in migraine occurs at any time of day, more often in the morning at the time of awakening. Migraine pain is unilateral pulsating, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

Pain in migraine

Provoke a migraine attack can cause stress, physical activity, weather changes, bright lights, noise, insufficient or excessive sleep, ovulation and period of menstruation and even some foods (alcohol, nuts, eggs, cheese, milk, chocolate, cocoa, etc…)

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Dr. Denis Slinkin states: migraine attack is sometimes preceded by aura. Aura is a specific precursor of migraine in the form of local neurological symptoms, such as visual disturbances (loss of field of vision in the form of a spot, “lightning” or flash in the eyes), “running goosebumps” in the hands, numbness of any part of the body (tongue, face, hand …), etc.

Aura occurs in 10-15% of migraine cases and usually lasts from a few minutes to 1 hour.

Migraine attacks can be up to several within one month.

Migraine is often inherited and is familial in nature. Our long-term observations have allowed us to track characteristic changes in relatives with migraine. Studies have identified a number of migraine predisposing causes related to the desynchronization of arterial and venous cerebral blood flow.