How to tell if your teen is depressed

How to tell if your teen is depressed

The teenage years are often very difficult for children and their parents. This period is very important for mental well-being. We figure out what features of a teenager’s behavior should be paid attention to and when to see a doctor and use desirett.

People of all ages experience sadness, irritation, or loss of energy from time to time. Such feelings are considered normal, but if the negative does not disappear and does not subside for a long time, this is a reason to consult a specialist. In the case of a child, this condition can mean depression. It is treatable, but not always easy to recognize, even by a specialist.
How serious is this problem at all?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is one of the leading causes of morbidity and disability among adolescents worldwide, with about 10–20% of them experiencing mental health problems but not being diagnosed and treated.
Who are at risk?

The reasons for the development of depression in adolescents are different and are determined individually in each specific situation. Emotional, social, and physical factors make a person vulnerable: violence and abuse, social status among peers, family well-being, school or university performance.
Some adolescents are at a higher risk of depression. This problem affects children with chronic diseases or other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. At risk are teenagers who have become parents or married early, as well as ethnic minorities.
Maybe my child is just lazy and doesn’t want to do anything? Or just upset? How to understand that he is really bad?

Depression is not a condition that can be overcome with an effort of will. This is a persistent lack of interest in any activity, accompanied by a feeling of sadness. Often, this condition can cause suicidal thoughts, disturbances in sleep and wakefulness, and even physical symptoms such as pain in the head and abdomen, and a constant feeling of fatigue. It may seem that a person is lazy, does not want to do anything, in fact, he will be in a state of apathy, which is one of the symptoms of depression.
Very often, depression is disguised as mood swings, and sometimes the teenager himself does not make contact, isolates himself from family and friends and does not want to talk about his mood. This condition should not be ignored, because it can result in serious consequences – asocial behavior or, in the worst case, such as a suicide attempt.
You should not immediately try on labels on a teenager, because he may be sick, which is why it is so important to know about the symptoms of depression and communicate with your child. Gently bring him into the conversation, win him over, make it clear that you are on his side and you care. Start your conversation with these phrases:
“Let’s talk to you about this, it’s important to me.”
“Let’s think about how we can solve this problem.”
“You mean a lot to me, your condition worries me.”

What should you pay attention to?

First and foremost, depression can manifest itself in different ways in different children and it does not proceed in the same way as in adults. Adults with depressive disorder are more likely to experience sadness, and children and adolescents are more likely to be angry and irritable. Also, a sharp decline in grades at school often begins, and changes in normal behavior are observed. Here are some warning bells:
defiant, reckless behavior, abrupt changes in behavior;
irritability and anger;
complaints of pain in the head or abdomen;
insomnia or, conversely, too long sleep;
tiredness, lack of energy;
decreased appetite, loss, or, conversely, gaining excess body weight;
decreased physical activity;
difficulties in making decisions;
lack of concentration;
Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
thoughts of death or suicide;
detached behavior;
the use of psychoactive substances, alcohol;
the child cries for no reason;
increased sensitivity to criticism;
a feeling of hopelessness and helplessness.

Which doctor can treat depression?

Depressive disorders are dealt with by psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and sometimes psychologists. Unlike SARS, which in most cases can be dealt with independently at home, depression requires mandatory observation by a doctor, since the causes of the disease are different. Hence the different methods of treatment.
Typically, adolescents are prescribed medication, psychotherapy, and recommendations for lifestyle changes. Normalizing sleep and wakefulness, sports, and a balanced diet – all these simple things can really do their bit in the fight against depressive disorder.
How long will the treatment take?

Overcoming depression can take time, in this regard, unfortunately, no guarantees can be made on the timing. According to Russian recommendations, treatment should be continued for 4–6 months after remission, since shorter periods of time increase the risk of depression recurrence. Therefore, the teenager will need a lot of support. Remember, depressive disorders are treatable! This is not a life sentence, and a teenager will not be registered with a psychiatrist if he does not pose a threat to himself.

Scalp fungus. Scientists have found new ways to treat

Scalp fungus. Scientists have found new ways to treat

At the moment, the problem of scalp fungus is becoming more and more exciting. Some doctors use this drug:

According to statistics, almost everyone has had this ailment at least once. This is a real problem, as the fungus affects the hair, and therefore the appearance of a person.

Scalp fungus appears due to the following:

Weakened immunity.
Disregard for the rules of personal hygiene: the use of other people’s hats, combs, hairpins, elastic bands, and so on.
Scientists and doctors call the following symptoms of scalp fungus:

Deterioration of hair.
Purulent inflammation on the head.
Breakage and hair loss.
Dandruff in large quantities.
Redness of the skin.
The appearance of oval plaques with yellow or blue scales.
Scientists said that the appearance of at least one of the symptoms is already a good reason to consult a doctor, since their new methods of treatment are more effective at an early stage of the development of scalp fungus.

In this age of innovation, scientists have developed new ways to combat scalp fungus. They suggest treating the fungus with the following:

Antifungal shampoos. Keto plus, Mycozoral, Nizoral, Sebozol.
Ointments. Thermikon, Terbizil, Salicylic-zinc, batrafen, microspores.
Pills. Griseofulvin and irunin.
Scientists recalled that for different types of diseases, individual treatment is prescribed, which you can read about here. With microsporia, Terbizil is smeared with a thin layer on the damaged part of the head 1-2 times a day, and griseofulvin is taken orally three to four times a day. With favus, irunin is taken once a day for twenty-one days.

Scientists said that the prevention of scalp fungus with folk remedies will only benefit. From folk remedies, they allocated:

Applying eucalyptus oil to the comb and then combing the hair.
A mixture of teaspoons of garlic juice, lemon juice and olive oil. Then apply with a cotton swab to the affected skin, and then put on a cellophane cap and sit for an hour. This will relieve itching and redness of the skin.
Celandine compresses. Grind three hundred grams, pour half a liter of vodka, cover and leave for a week in a dark place. After cooking, you can make compresses.
Scalp fungus is not only contagious and difficult to cure, but it also interferes with a normal life in society. In this regard, scientists are constantly creating new ways to treat the fungus. They said that several more methods of treating fungi will be announced in the near future.

Hormonal contraception: truth and prejudice

Hormonal contraception: truth and prejudice

There are many methods of hormonal contraception, and it is not easy to understand them. In this article, we answer the most common questions and review in detail the pros, cons and subtleties of using hormonal contraception. The information applies to this drug as well:

How does hormonal contraception work?
All processes related to childbearing in the female body are controlled by hormones. With the help of drugs, which contain synthetic analogues of female hormones, it is possible to prevent pregnancy at the stage of egg maturation.

Modern hormonal contraceptives can do three things:

Keep the egg from leaving the ovaries – that is, stop ovulation;

Doctor explaining contraception

make the mucus in the cervix thick and sticky, so that sperm cannot reach the egg and fertilize it;

disrupt the growth of the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrium) – as a result, the fertilized egg cannot get a foothold in the uterus.

This is usually enough to prevent pregnancy. Women who use hormonal contraceptives do not need a condom “for insurance”, but to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections. Hormonal contraceptives do not protect against germs.

Hormonal contraception – is it safe?
The British Department of Health estimates that when used correctly, hormonal contraceptives are more than 99 percent effective. But even if you don’t use them exactly according to the instructions (for example, take a pill at the wrong time, or skip taking one pill altogether), the result is still quite reliable: about 91% effective.

It is important to understand that there is no 100% reliable method of contraception. The World Health Organization (WHO) counted the proportion of couples who used hormonal contraception for an entire year in full compliance with the existing recommendations – that is, according to the instructions and regularly. Even in this case, 0.05-0.3% of women did get pregnant.

And this is an excellent result. By comparison, the percentage of women who got pregnant while using a male condom was 2%. Sperm-killing vaginal suppositories and gels failed their owners in 18% of cases, and vaginal diaphragms that were used together with gels – in 6% of cases.

Using hormones for contraception is definitely not harmful?
Like any medication, hormonal contraceptives have side effects, but the benefits far outweigh the harms in most cases. For example, it was recently discovered that birth control pills protect women from ovarian and endometrial cancer.

Interestingly, even complete “period withdrawal” is not harmful to a woman’s body. It is even beneficial – if a woman suffered from endometriosis before taking contraceptives, hormonal contraceptives will help alleviate the symptoms.

But in order to benefit from contraception, it is necessary to observe an important condition: the drug must be chosen correctly. This should be done by a doctor.

Will hormonal contraception prevent me from having children in the future?
No. In most women the ability to have children is restored in the first month after discontinuation of hormonal contraception.

The only exception is injection methods of contraception, which are effective for 3-6 months. In order to have a higher chance of conception, it is worth waiting 6-10 months from the time of the last injection.

Do all hormonal contraceptives work the same way, or are there differences?
Hormonal contraceptives are divided into two large groups: progestin and combination contraceptives, the latter containing progestins and estrogens. Although drugs from both groups prevent pregnancy, they work slightly differently, and they have different side effects.

For example, in addition to protecting against unplanned pregnancy, the combination drugs treat acne and reduce menstrual pain – but more often the progestin drugs cause headaches, and they’re not allowed for smokers.

In addition, the difference in composition allows the contraceptive to be tailored to the needs of the individual woman. The drug needed for a teenager may not be the same as the one needed for a 40-year-old mother of two.

What is refen-retard

What is refen-retard

Refen Retard is indicated for the treatment of the pain of osteoarthritis
Refen Retard is indicated for the treatment of the pain of osteoarthritis

Refen Retard is indicated for the treatment of the pain of osteoarthritis of the knee(s). The information provided in Dosage (Posology) and method of administrationof Refen Retard is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Refen Retard. Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Dosage (Posology) and method of administration in the instructions to the drug Refen Retard directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.more…

General Dosing Instructions

Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.

For relief of the pain of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee(s), the recommended dose is 40 mg of diclofenac sodium (2 pump actuations) on each painful knee, 2 times a day.

Apply Refen Retard to clean, dry skin.

The pump must be primed before first use. Instruct patients to fully depress the pump mechanism (actuation) 4 times while holding the bottle in an upright position. This portion should be discarded to ensure proper priming of the pump. No further priming of the bottle should be required.

After the priming procedure, Refen Retard is properly dispensed by completely depressing the pump 2 times to achieve the prescribed dosage for one knee. Deliver the product directly into the palm of the hand and then apply evenly around front, back, and sides of the knee.

Application of Refen Retard in an amount exceeding or less than the recommended dose has not been studied and is therefore not recommended.

Special Precautions

  • Avoid showering/bathing for at least 30 minutes after the application of Refen Retard to the treated knee.
  • Wash and dry hands after use.
  • Do not apply Refen Retard to open wounds.
  • Avoid contact of Refen Retard with eyes and mucous membranes.
  • Do not apply external heat and/or occlusive dressings to treated knees.
  • Avoid wearing clothing over the Refen Retard-treated knee(s) until the treated knee is dry.
  • Protect the treated knee(s) from natural and artificial sunlight.
  • Wait until the treated area is dry before applying sunscreen, insect repellant, lotion, moisturizer, cosmetics, or other topical medication to the same knee you have just treated with Refen Retard.
  • Until the treated knee(s) is completely dry, avoid skin-to-skin contact between other people and the treated knee(s).
  • Do not use combination therapy with Refen Retard and an oral NSAID unless the benefit outweighs the risk and conduct periodic laboratory evaluations.

The information provided in Contraindicationsof Refen Retard is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Refen Retard. Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Contraindications in the instructions to the drug Refen Retard directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy.more…

Refen Retard is contraindicated in the following patients:

  • Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to diclofenac or any components of the drug product
  • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients
  • In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

Thanks to this drug, the disease will pass, but a little more time will pass and you can look for a new job, because good vacancies are already waiting for you here

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Epitomax, an antiepileptic drug of unusual structure, is a fructose derivative. Topiramate, sold under the brand name Epitomax among others, is a drug used to treat epilepsy and prevent migraines. It is not effective as an antimanic or antidepressant for bipolar disorder. It has also been used for alcohol addiction. For the treatment of epilepsy it includes generalized or focal seizures. It is used orally.

Common side effects include tingling, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain, hair loss, and concentration problems. Serious side effects can include suicide, elevated ammonia levels leading to encephalopathy, and kidney stones. Use during pregnancy can lead to harm to the baby, and use during breastfeeding is not recommended.

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

Epitomax was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996. Epitomax is used to treat epilepsy in children and adults, and it was originally used as an anticonvulsant. In children, it is indicated for the treatment of Lennox-Gasto syndrome, a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays. It is most often prescribed for the prevention of migraine; it reduces the frequency of attacks.

In a 2019 Cochrane review comparing the effectiveness of epilepsy treatment between carbamazepine and topiramate (Epitomax), results showed that those who took carbamazepine were more likely to take the treatment longer and achieve remission 12 months earlier than those who took topiramate. No differences were found between the drugs in those with generalized or unclassified epilepsy. The most common side effects reported by participants during the trials were fatigue, “needles and needles” (a tingling sensation), headache, gastrointestinal problems, and anxiety or depression. These side effects were reported about the same number of times by people taking Epitomax or carbamazepine. For people with focal seizures, the reliability of the evidence was rated as moderate to high. For a small number of people with generalized or unclassified seizures, the reliability of the evidence was rated as low to moderate. The evidence was valid through May 2018.

Research in the treatment of epilepsy with Epitomax

In a 2019 Cochrane review of Epitomax for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, results showed that Epitomax was better tolerated than valproate but was not more effective than valproate. Also, Epitomax appeared to work better than placebo, but this result was based on the small number of participants included. The quality of evidence from the included studies was very low, and the results should be interpreted with caution.

In a 2014 Cochrane review of the potential use of Epitomax as an adjunctive agent in pharmacoresistant epilepsy, results showed that for seizure reduction in drug-resistant focal epilepsy, Epitomax was three times more effective than placebo when used with other medications. However, the addition of Epitomax to the main treatment causes an increase in side effects such as problems with coordination (ataxia) and concentration, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, nausea, “wrong thinking”, skin irritation or numbness (paresthesia) and weight loss.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine progressive disease characterized by a relative or complete deficiency of insulin, a pancreatic hormone.

How can I regain a full life with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is not a sentence. It can be reversed even in its initial stages of development. How to recognize the disease, stop its course or continue to fight the “sweet enemy” as equals? What is insulin responsible for? It directs the processes of energy metabolism in the body. This hormone helps glucose get into the cell. If insulin is lacking, blood sugar rises significantly.

Diabetes mellitus

Symptoms: unremitting feeling of thirst; increased frequency of urination; weight changes regardless of lifestyle (both upward and downward); poor wound healing; skin infections, itching; tendency to overwork; increased hunger, no complete saturation after meals; tingling in the extremities, you often “chills” on the body; problems with sexual activity; dry mouth; visual impairment.
Risk Factors. If parents are susceptible to the disease, in 50% of cases the child is also affected. A sedentary lifestyle puts you in a risk group. Abuse of an unbalanced diet (fatty or high-carbohydrate foods) also poses a threat to your health. It takes an average of 5-7 years from the onset of the disease to diagnosis. There are about 3-4 people per newly diagnosed patient, who do not even suspect the presence of their insidious disease. At the same time, taking certain medications or endocrine disorders can relapse diabetes. The occurrence of secondary diabetes occurs with improper function of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, during the use of glucocorticosteroid drugs (these are analogs of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; have an anti-inflammatory effect, artificially suppress immunity in autoimmune diseases; have an antishock effect, prevent the appearance of allergies) diuretics (increase urine flow), salicylates (substances that have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects).

There are certain types of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs more often in adolescents and young adults. This category of disease is associated with the death of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This means that insulin completely disappears from the internal environment. As a result, cells are unable to assimilate sugar and remain without an energy boost. Type 1 manifests itself after viral infections, malfunctions of the immune system and less frequently – due to hereditary predisposition. In this case, the body weight may remain normal, even decreasing.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for an average of 80% of all cases. It occurs mainly in people after the age of 40 who are overweight, lead a sedentary lifestyle and abuse an improper diet. In the presence of this type of diabetes, there is a delivery of insulin to the body from the beta cells, but the cells lose the ability to recognize it.
  • There is also pregnancy diabetes or gestational diabetes (during pregnancy there is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism), and diabetes resulting from insufficient nutrition.
What is Type 2 diabetes

What is Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is becoming more and more common around the world. According to recent data, only in the last 10 years the number of patients has increased by 60%. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetics. Whether you are looking for information for yourself, your spouse or a loved one, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and available treatments for diabetes anyway.

What is Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cells that produce insulin become unable to produce enough or when the insulin produced is not perceived by the body – this condition is also known as insulin resistance. Unfortunately, this disease is a lifelong one. In the UK alone, it affects about 2.88 million people. But even if these figures do not frighten you, you can live a full and healthy life with the right information, the right attitude and the right lifestyle. Diabetes 1 and 2 types differ from each other in several ways. Thus, in contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is usually found in people over the age of 40 years. However, unhealthy diet and lifestyle may determine the development of diabetes at any age. Previously, it was called adulthood diabetes because it was more common among older people, but with increasing obesity and the number of young people leading sedentary lifestyles, the risk for young adults, adolescents and children increased.


It was found that lifestyle, nutrition and national identity may have a direct impact on the likelihood of a person having Type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that people of African and Creole origin are 3 times more likely to develop the disease, while people from southern Asia are almost 6 times more likely to have it.


The most important thing is to keep a positive mood and be ready for changes. Try to wean yourself from possible bad habits and think about what pleases you – it will help to move to a healthier lifestyle. You can start walking more or try new, healthier recipes – anything you want to do, the main thing is to do with enthusiasm. If you are in an age group with a higher risk of diabetes, or if you have an unfavorable family history, it is not a reason to worry too much. Just read this article and try to enjoy a healthy lifestyle.


What is Type 2 diabetes

Another important factor that differentiates type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes occurs within a few weeks and type 2 diabetes develops slowly over a longer period of time. Because of this, gradually manifesting symptoms are often overlooked.
Briefly looking at the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, we can identify 3 main symptoms:

  • Excessive thirst. This condition is also known as polydipsia; in fact, it is a persistent desire to drink water despite the use of an adequate amount during the day.
  • Excessive hunger. By analogy with polydipsia, this symptom is called polyphagia. Persisting intense hunger for lack of physical activity may be an indicator of the presence of problems in the body.
  • Increased urination. The last of the three main symptoms and the last “P” is polyuria. It can be described as unusual or irregular urination, maintaining this character day after day.


Here are some of the most common complications of type 2 diabetes:

  • Damage to the heart and blood vessels. Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including coronary heart disease and hypertension, which may eventually lead to heart attack.
  • Damage to the eyes and feet. Diabetes can have a significant effect on the blood vessels of the eyes, which can lead to cataract and glaucoma, and in severe cases – even blindness. Stops also often suffer from nerve damage and poor blood flow. Because diabetics have slower wound healing processes, any small damage to the foot can quickly turn into a severe lesion.
  • Affection to the nerves. High blood sugar (glucose) levels for a long time can damage the capillaries responsible for the nerve endings in the extremities, such as the legs. As a result, a tingling sensation or numbness may occur, which eventually leads to a loss of sensitivity in the affected areas.


Diabetic foot (diabetic foot syndrome) – a complication of diabetes, which forms trophic ulcers on the foot. The problem is very urgent: more than one hundred thousand residents of our city suffer from diabetes. Almost in a quarter of cases, this syndrome ends with amputation of the limb due to gangrene. But if before medicine was unable to cope with this severe complication and the patient had to wait obediently for his fate, now the situation has changed. The diagnosis “Diabetic Foot” today is no longer a verdict.

How does a diabetic foot appear?


Diabetes disrupts the absorption of sugar by all organs and tissues except the brain. Ketone bodies and other poisonous compounds are formed, many types of metabolism suffer. As a result, a number of pathological changes occur in the body. The nervous system is affected – nerve cells, fibers and ends. Vessels are affected – arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Unfavorable processes take place in the bone tissue, in the skin. In the depth of weakened tissues, infection easily penetrates. All this leads to the formation of diabetic foot. There are three main forms – “neuropathic infected”, “ischemic gangreneous” and mixed. The first one is more related to the pathology of the nervous system arising from diabetes, the second – to the lesion of blood vessels. In a mixed form, both these processes play approximately the same role.

The main manifestations of diabetic foot

At the beginning of its development, diabetic foot usually does not bring much suffering to the patient, because by that time a significant part of the nerve endings of the foot has already died and is unable to produce pain impulses. This is the insidiousness: the disease develops spontaneously and does not prompt you to see a doctor immediately. The early signs of this syndrome are swelling and redness of the feet, chilly feet, tingling sensation, creeps, rapid fatigue of legs while walking, calf muscle cramps. The main changes can also occur in the type of bone deformities – it is becoming increasingly difficult to choose shoes. If at this stage is not treated, the pathological process continues to develop. First, surface ulcers appear, then – deep sores penetrating into subcutaneous fat, tendons, joints, bone structures. Accession of the infection leads to serious complications – gangrene and osteomyelitis. Gangrene is often the cause of foot amputation, disability and death of patients.

Diabetic foot diagnosis


Even if the diagnosis of “diabetic foot” is not in doubt, an in-depth examination of the patient is required. It is necessary to get answers to a number of questions – what diabetic changes have occurred in the body, how deeply affected are the nerves, blood vessels and bone structures of the foot, the nature of the joined infection and many others. The department carries out duplex scanning of arteries and veins of the legs, take blood for glucose, lipids and cholesterol. Specialist examination and comprehensive diagnosis allow you to quickly make the right diagnosis and assess the depth of tissue damage. Immediately on the day of the visit, a patient treatment program is developed and can be immediately implemented. It is very important to start treatment early, because in neglected cases, sometimes it is not possible to save the limb, and amputation is required to save the life of the patient (for life indications).

Treatment and prevention of diabetic foot

When an early visit to the doctor, when ulcers have not yet formed or they are shallow, the patient has a much better chance of recovery. Nevertheless, even at the initial stage of the disease it is necessary to apply a whole range of therapeutic measures aimed at normalizing metabolism, treatment of neuropathy, restoration of foot blood supply, combating swelling, infection. In neglected cases, the patient is placed in a hospital – this allows for intensive treatment, to control the dynamics of the patient’s body and ensure peace of the affected limb. Treatment of diabetic foot is one of the most important activities of the Dr. Gruzdev Clinic. The Clinic uses drip injection of modern vascular drugs and drugs for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physiotherapeutic methods aimed at both activation of the main blood flow in the limb, and the development of collaterals around the narrowed arteries (magnetotherapy, intravenous laser irradiation of the blood (FOCA), magnetic and sound therapy, electromyostimulation, etc.). In the development of trophic disorders with surface tissue affection, external ozone therapy is successfully used to cleanse the ulcer defect and accelerate epithelization processes.

How does a migraine manifest itself

How does a migraine manifest itself

Pain in migraine occurs at any time of day, more often in the morning at the time of awakening. Migraine pain is unilateral pulsating, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

Pain in migraine

Provoke a migraine attack can cause stress, physical activity, weather changes, bright lights, noise, insufficient or excessive sleep, ovulation and period of menstruation and even some foods (alcohol, nuts, eggs, cheese, milk, chocolate, cocoa, etc…)

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Dr. Denis Slinkin states: migraine attack is sometimes preceded by aura. Aura is a specific precursor of migraine in the form of local neurological symptoms, such as visual disturbances (loss of field of vision in the form of a spot, “lightning” or flash in the eyes), “running goosebumps” in the hands, numbness of any part of the body (tongue, face, hand …), etc.

Aura occurs in 10-15% of migraine cases and usually lasts from a few minutes to 1 hour.

Migraine attacks can be up to several within one month.

Migraine is often inherited and is familial in nature. Our long-term observations have allowed us to track characteristic changes in relatives with migraine. Studies have identified a number of migraine predisposing causes related to the desynchronization of arterial and venous cerebral blood flow.